ad-hockery: /ad·hok'@r·ee/, n.
Gratuitous assumptions... which lead to the appearance of semi-intelligent behavior but are in fact entirely arbitrary. Jargon File


Peter Ledbrook wrote an interesting post Exploring Kotlin about his initial experiences with Kotlin. Since I’ve been getting quite into Kotlin recently I thought I’d follow that up with some of my own observations as well as responding to some of the questions he raised.

The most compelling feature of Kotlin for me is the way it handles null and nullable types. You may be familiar with the debate around the use of Optional<?> in Java 8. Some people argue that it’s too little too late to add option types to the language now. We have however many thousand libraries liberally returning and accepting null so we still need to do null checking anyway.

Option types are familiar to most of us from Scala and Guava. One of the things that most disappointed me about Scala is that it doesn’t enforce null-safety at compile time. Instead it’s just frowned upon to use null which is fine until you want to use one of those Java libraries I mentioned earlier.

Kotlin is designed for interoperability with Java. It’s a pragmatic language that expects you to want to use all those Java APIs you’ve spent years getting familiar with. To that end it has an incredibly smart solution to the null versus option type debate. Simply, nullable references in Kotlin behave like option types. Kotlin’s String? is very very like Optional<String> in Java 8 or Option[String] in Scala. Kotlin just provides first-class syntactic support for using its nullable / option types. For example maybeString?.toString() in Kotlin is equivalent to in Java 8 or in Scala.

Because Java doesn’t have such type safety return types from methods on Java classes are considered nullable (most of the time – more on this later). So a Java method public String toUpperCase(String s) is seen by Kotlin code as fun toUpperCase(s: String?): String?

The Kotlin compiler enforces null safety. That means you can’t, for example, call it.method() if it might be null. First you must ensure it isn’t null by either using an explicit check:

if (it != null) {

Kotlin’s type inference comes into play here and allows you to call it.method() inside the conditional statement because it knows it cannot be null inside that context. The compiler has inferred that the type of it within that block is Object and not Object?.

You can also use the Groovy style null safe dereference operator – it?.method(). The type of such an expression is the nullable form of method's return type so in order to use the result for anything you’ll have to ensure that it in turn is not null.

Type inference also means that a non-nullable reference can always be assigned to a reference that is a nullable form of the same type. So given a variable of type String:

val s = "o hai I'm a String and definitely not null"

We can assign it to a String? variable:

var maybeString: String?
maybeString = s

We can also pass it directly to methods accepting String?:

fun myMethod(maybeString: String?)


In Java 8 or Scala we’d have to wrap the value with Optional.of(s) or Some(s) in order to do the equivalent.

As Peter points out in his post using Java libraries inevitably means handling nullable types. However Kotlin has another trick up its sleeve with the KAnnotator tool. Kannotator infers nullability of parameters and return types in an API by analyzing the byte code, looking for @NotNull annotations, and so on. The output of KAnnotator is an ugly directory full of XML files but luckily you can completely ignore that – it’s purely for the benefit of the Kotlin compiler and your IDE.

Kotlin also allows for extension functions meaning you can decorate existing types with new functions very easily and with the full benefit of static compilation. Extension functions do away with the need for ugly *Utils type classes and allow for Groovy-like extensions of the Java standard library. Interestingly you can even create extension functions for nullable types and null itself. This capability would help solve Peter’s complaint about having to do a two part null / empty check on String?. How about:

fun String?.isEmpty() : boolean = this?.isEmpty()

Java 8 style methods references were a recent addition to Kotlin that I haven’t had much chance to play with yet. I’m not sure exactly what problems Peter had with them.

I’ve been really impressed with Kotlin. It feels like a mix of the pragmatism of Groovy with the static compilation and type safety of Scala (in fact I like Kotlin’s approach to the null / option problem much more than Scala’s). Scala’s pattern matching is – for me – the stand out feature that Kotlin doesn’t (yet?) compete with.

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