ad-hockery: /ad·hok'@r·ee/, n.
Gratuitous assumptions... which lead to the appearance of semi-intelligent behavior but are in fact entirely arbitrary. Jargon File

Groovy & the public keyword

One of the first things you learn in Groovy is that unlike Java public is the default scope for properties and methods declared on classes. Most developers get into the habit of simply omitting the public keyword everywhere. But, is there any situation where it’s the right thing to use? Actually, yes.

When you declare a public constant in a Groovy class you would probably write something like this:

class HttpStatus {
    static final int SC_UNPROCESSABLE_ENTITY = 422

Nothing wrong with that, right?

If you look at the byte code for the class you will notice that you got a little more than you may have bargained for:

private static final int HttpStatus.SC_UNPROCESSABLE_ENTITY
public static final int HttpStatus.getSC_UNPROCESSABLE_ENTITY()

This is a Groovy property – a private field with accessor methods as per the Java beans standard. In this case it happens to be static and because it was declared final it doesn’t have a setter method.

It doesn’t break anything and when referring to the constant from Groovy there’s no difference in syntax. If you use the constant from a Java class though, you’ll have to refer to it with:


You might also notice that even in a Groovy class if you static import the constant in IntelliJ IDEA you end up with:

import static HttpStatus.getSC_UNPROCESSABLE_ENTITY

Let’s add another constant – this time with the public keyword:

public static final int SC_IM_A_TEAPOT = 418

Then look at the byte code as before:

public static final int HttpStatus.SC_IM_A_TEAPOT

This time you created a constant field rather than a property. More appropriate in this case and with no syntactic issues when referenced from Java.

This isn’t just about constants. Adding any scope keyword to a property in a Groovy class turns it into a field. That’s useful to bear in mind when you’re dealing with class hierarchies with protected fields, encapsulating private state or figuring out what properties will be persisted in a GORM class (hint – Hibernate looks for Java bean getter and setter methods by default).

Web Statistics